Arkansas Historic Preservation Program
Crossett Methodist Church
Crossett Methodist Church

CROSSETT METHODIST CHURCH, CROSSETT, ASHLEY COUNTY

SUMMARY

The Crossett Methodist Church is being nominated to the National Register of Historic Places with local significance under Criterion C and Criteria Consideration A as a unique combination of the Tudor Revival and Gothic Revival styles designed by noted Arkansas architect John Parks Almand.  The church’s irregular plan, asymmetrical façade, steeply pitched roof, multi-level eaves, and slightly flared eaves are characteristics of the Tudor Revival style.  However, the use of elaborate tracery, pointed arch openings, buttresses, and statuary provide a subtle Gothic Revival-style influence.   In addition, the Crossett Methodist Church is strikingly similar to two other churches designed by Almand during this period, one of which was also completed in 1949.  This eclectic church is one of the most architecturally significant buildings in Crossett.

ELABORATION

Crossett, located in Ashley County in southeast Arkansas, was founded in 1898 as a sawmill town owned and operated by the Crossett Lumber Company.  The Crossett Lumber Company, organized by Edward Savage Crossett, Charles Warner Gates, and Dr. John Wenzel Watzek, purchased 50,000 acres of virgin timberland in Ashley County, Arkansas, and Morehouse Parish, Louisiana, in the late 1890s.  With the exception of Dr. Watzek, who was E. S. Crossett’s physician, the men had extensive knowledge of the lumber business.Crossett and his brother had previously worked in Arkansas lumber towns like Thornton, Fordyce, and Wilmar.  The Gates brothers—Charles W., Albert, and P.G.—managed and worked for the Fordyce Lumber Company.  But the youngest Gates brother, Edgar Woodward “Cap” Gates, was inexperienced in the lumber business until he worked in another one of his brothers’ sawmills at Thornton.  The ambitious Cap Gates quickly became the manager of the Thornton sawmill and wanted more responsibility, so the Crossett Company sent him to south Arkansas to secure a site for a new sawmill.[1]

Gates initially chose Hamburg as the site of the company’s new mill because it was the county seat and already had a railroad and established businesses.  Gates opened a land office in Hamburg to purchase “worthless” timber land from area farmers who were eager to be rid of acreage not well suited for growing crops.  Although there was already a sawmill in Hamburg, the Crossett Company decided to locate its new mill there as well.  However, when the official decision was announced, Hamburg leaders refused to sell a location for the mill because they wanted to protect their hometown mill and prevent an influx of undesirable “foreign sawmill people.”[2]  This greatly enraged Cap Gates, so he selected a site in the middle of the forest two miles from the nearest post office and thirteen miles from the county seat of Hamburg.  Gates immediately started building the sawmill and a town for its employees, which was to be named “Crossett” in honor of company vice president E. S. Crossett.[3]

A small mill was in operation by May 17, 1899, to cut lumber for tent houses and later, for the first substantial wood houses.  The first houses were built on the 100 and 200 blocks of Main and Pine streets.In addition to the construction of tent houses and houses, streets were cleared and water and sewer systems were built.  Like many company-owned lumber towns at the turn of the twentieth century, Crossett was literally owned and operated by the Crossett Lumber Company.  The Crossett Company owned the land, houses, businesses, schools, hospitals, etc.  Workers were issued scrip at the company commissary to purchase necessary items.  The company kept workers happy by providing higher wages than nearby mills, reliable utilities, and occasional entertainment.[4]  Cap Gates became the first manager of the Crossett Lumber Company, and residents quickly realized that “Crossett was a one-man town and that Cap Gates was the man.”[5]  Gates insisted that employees be of good moral character, and as a result, liquor, gambling, and prostitution were never allowed in Crossett.  Any troublemakers were given their last paycheck and asked to leave town.[6]

In 1902 the Mississippi, Hamburg & Western Railroad laid tracks in Crossett, and the Crossett Company started shipping lumber.  The mill yards encompassed 124 acres, including stacked lumber, modern dry kilns, and an extensive tram system.  By 1908 the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad reached Crossett, and in 1912 the Crossett Company constructed an independent line called the Ashley, Drew & Northern Railroad between Crossett and Monticello.[7]  The Crossett Company had a hardwood mill in its early years, which produced oak, pecan, and gum flooring.  However, most of the company’s business relied on the harvesting of pine.  A box factory was established as early as 1916 and used low-grade materials for the construction of wooden crates.  Mop handles were also manufactured from leftover materials and sold in Monticello, Arkansas, and in Mississippi.  A Kraft paper mill was established in Crossett in the mid-1930s, which further diversified the types of products produced by the Crossett Lumber Company.  Chemical and charcoal plants opened shortly after the paper mill, enabling the company to profit from low-grade lumber by-products as well.[8]

The Crossett Company would become known for its progressive attitude toward sustainable forestry practices.  The first class of students from Yale University’s School of Forestry came to Crossett in 1912 with Charles Harlan Watzek, son of Crossett Lumber Company co-founder Dr. John W. Watzek.  Charles Watzek, himself a graduate of Yale University, brought students to Crossett for a three-month field study in sustainable forestry methods (versus the previous “cut out and get out” method).[9]

Studies in “sustained yield” forestry became popular in the 1920s as many lumber companies sought to prolong their existence beyond the average time span of 20-30 years (under the clear-cutting method).  The Crossett Company experimented with growing crops on cut-over land without success.  When it became apparent in the early 1920s that the Crossett Company would soon run out of timber land, company officials turned to the academically trained foresters of Yale University for help.  Yale professor Ralph Bryant was hired as the company’s first forestry consultant, and the company constantly employed trained foresters beginning in 1923.  In 1946 the Crossett Lumber Company offered Yale University a permanent site for its training program (students had previously stayed in sawmill dormitories).  The Yale Camp was located about one mile east of Crossett and included cabins, a shower house, and a mess hall.Students came to the camp for an eleven-week course in forestry management until the camp closed in 1966.  The close relationship between the Crossett Company and Yale University greatly enhanced the company’s knowledge of sustainable forestry methods like selective cutting and replanting.[10]

In addition to the Yale Camp, the creation of the Crossett Experimental Forest in 1934 greatly benefited the Crossett Lumber Company and provided a future for the lumber operation.  Established by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, it was one of the first experimental forests in the southern United States.  A research station was constructed on a 1,680-acre parcel of Crossett Company land to conduct controlled long-term research on the loblolly and shortleaf pine.  The work done at the Crossett Experimental Forest helped sustain operations of the Crossett Lumber Company far beyond traditional lumber companies, which were usually forced to move to another location after 20-30 years of clear-cutting.  The forestry research program continues today.[11]

The Georgia-Pacific Corporation purchased the holdings of the Crossett Lumber Company in 1962, and quickly started producing plywood made from Southern yellow pine.  Although the days of the Crossett Lumber Company’s paternalistic control of the town are in the past, Crossett still relies heavily on the lumber industry.[12]

The history of the Crossett Methodist Church reveals Cap Gates’s commitment to the Crossett Company as well as his determination to keep tempting vices like liquor, gambling, and prostitution out of his town.  Gates was a religious man and believed that “evils” like liquor could ruin a town.[13]  Plus he knew that liquor would only result in his employees’ misbehavior.  Therefore, when J. L. Crow and Clark Buchner informed Cap Gates in October 1902 that plans for a saloon were underway just north of Crossett, he acted quickly.  Citing an 1837 Arkansas statute prohibiting the sale of liquor within one mile of a church, the group decided to construct Crossett’s first church that night.  Men immediately began working, and the church was completed sometime the next day.  It was located on the corner of Main and Second streets and cost a total of $75.  The one-room church was 16 by 32 feet with a front-gabled roof.  One door was located in the south end, and windows fenestrated each side elevation.  The church was constructed with virgin pine boards and rested on a foundation of wooden piers.  Because the county judge would decide whether or not to grant a permit for the new saloon by two o’clock in the afternoon, Cap Gates sent Clark Buchner to Hamburg to stop the permit.  Buchner traveled the thirteen-mile distance on horseback and reached Hamburg just before the judge made his decision.  To the judge’s surprise, Buchner cited the 1837 statute and announced that a church was located in Crossett, making it illegal to open a saloon just north of town.  The judge denied the saloon’s permit, pleasing Cap Gates and preventing the demoralizing influence of “demon liquor” in Crossett.[14]

Circuit riders and traveling ministers visited Crossett before the construction of the first church building, holding services in tents or private residences.  Thus, a substantial number of Methodists and Baptists resided in Crossett in 1902.  But because Cap Gates was a Methodist, the first church became a Methodist church.  On October 12, 1902, Reverend Sam W. Rainey organized the Methodist church with 28 founding members.[15]

Rev. Arthur M. Shaw came to pastor the Methodist church in Crossett in 1902.  Shaw had previously preached in Lake Village, Star City, Little Prairie Mission, Murfreesboro, and Oma before arriving in Crossett.  The Crossett Lumber Company promised to pay him $600, furnish a parsonage, and construct a “fine” Methodist church.  However, the Crossett Company was slow to fulfill its promise of a new church.  After much effort, Rev. Shaw finally convinced the Gates brothers to construct a new Methodist church at the northwest corner of Main and Third streets.  The church lot was provided by the Crossett Company, and half of the building’s total cost of $15,000 was paid by the company as well.  The other half was raised by church members.  Completed in 1904, the new Methodist church was a handsome cross-gabled building with a corner bell tower and pointed arch stained glass windows.  It was dedicated on September 24, 1904, by Bishop Key.[16]

The Crossett Lumber Company began selling its real estate holdings to residents in 1946, but the company continued to influence the city’s development.  With the exception of a café, pressing shop, and the post office, every business and building in Crossett was owned and operated by the Crossett Lumber Company until 1946.  Up until this point, Crossett residents were not allowed to own land or purchase their homes.  Churches were even located on company-owned land and financed in part by the company.  The Crossett Lumber Company continued to aid churches after 1946 by providing lots for the construction of new church buildings and paying half of the construction costs.  Even though the third and current Methodist church building was not completed until 1949, the Crossett Company agreed to provide a site and match up to $30,000 in pledges.[17]

On Easter Sunday in 1943, D. C. Hastings proposed the construction of a new church after the conclusion of World War II.  Hastings served as the building committee chairman, and people started pledging money toward the new church.  When Hastings retired and moved to Little Rock in 1945, Edwin Bird replaced him as building chairman.  The Crossett Company provided a lot on the west side of Main Street between Fifth and Sixth avenues for the new church.  With the exception of a few small houses, the entire 500 block of Main was unoccupied in 1948.  Men cleared a site for the church building on the forested lot, and construction began.  The church was completed and dedicated on July 1, 1949.  The new building cost a total of $147,865.  The new brick church was designed by well-known Arkansas architect John Parks Almand in an eclectic combination of the Tudor Revival and Gothic Revival styles.  A one-story, brick parsonage was constructed in 1954 at the northeast corner of the lot.  A Fellowship Hall and Daycare Wing were added to the church in 1959 and designed by the architectural firm of Trapp, Clippord & Phelps with W. S. Arnold serving as building committee chairman.  The First United Methodist Church still holds regular services in the building, which is one of the most architecturally significant structures in Crossett.[18]

John Parks Almand, who designed the Crossett Methodist Church, was born in Lithonia, Georgia, in 1885, and was the fourth of eight children.  His early education was done in Lithonia before he entered Emory College in Oxford, Georgia, (now Emory University in Atlanta) in 1903.  When Almand entered Emory College, he was undecided on whether to pursue a career in medicine or architecture, and it was not until he graduated from Emory in 1907 that he decided to go into architecture.  After graduating from Emory, Almand entered Columbia University in New York to pursue a degree in architecture, which he received in 1911.[19]

Although Almand did not graduate from Columbia until 1911, his experience as an architect actually began while he was in school.  For a couple of summers, Almand worked as a draftsman for the firm of Hentz, Adler & Schultz in Atlanta.  In addition, while a junior at Columbia, Almand designed a new Methodist church for his hometown of Lithonia, which was built for $12,000 in 1910.[20]

Upon graduation from Columbia, Almand’s first job was with the T. L. Hudson Company in Havana, Cuba, although Almand only stayed with the company for a year.  Almand learned that Charles Thompson was looking to hire an architect, and he applied and got the position.Almand arrived in Little Rock on July 13, 1912, and was met at the railroad station by Frank Ginocchio of the firm (coincidentally, Almand and Ginocchio would both die on the same day – March 24, 1969).  Shortly after arriving in Little Rock, Almand met Miss Frances Reeve Edmondson, and they later married on November 4, 1914.[21]

For the first two and a half years (July 1912 – December 1914) that Almand worked with Charles Thompson, he was a designer and earned $2,000 a year.  For the next year, he was promoted to a junior partner with Thompson.  However, Almand wanted to go out on his own – he had been in charge of designing some buildings while working with Thompson – and he opened his own office in January 1916 in room 1107 of the State Bank Building (now the Boyle Building).[22]

Although Almand opened his practice during the 1910s, it was not until the 1920s that it really took off.  He received many large commissions during the 1920s, including Arkansas Children’s Hospital, First Presbyterian Church, and he was also the designing architect of the Little Rock High School (now Central High School).  Although a lot of his work was centered in Little Rock, his practice grew to be statewide during the 1920s reaching from Paragould to Texarkana and from Bentonville to Wilmot.  He also took on two associates during the 1920s (the only time that he ever would) – Van Valkenberg for a short period in 1925 and Elmer A. Stuck of Jonesboro in 1929 – 1930.[23]

In addition to designing buildings across the state, Almand also took a brief foray into development in the late 1910s.  In 1919 Almand bought the land at the northeast corner of Center and 14th streets in Little Rock and built three speculative houses that he sold.  He then bought the northeast corner of Spring and 14th streets for the same purpose.  However, once the house at 324 W. 14th Street was completed, he decided to move his family in instead.[24]

As with most Americans, Almand and his family were severely affected by the Great Depression during the early 1930s.  In June 1934, Almand moved to Washington, DC, where he had been hired as an architect in the Office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department.  The office was responsible for designing post offices, customs houses, mints and other federal buildings across the country.  Even though Almand was in Washington, he kept a tie to Arkansas, designing the post office in Fort Smith.[25]

Almand returned to Little Rock in April 1936 to take charge of the Resettlement Administration’s Inspection Division office, which covered Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi.  As the director of the office, Almand was responsible for opening the office, organizing the work that the office would do, and he was also in charge of ten assistants.  The Resettlement Administration was involved in the construction of dams, farm buildings, utilities, roads, trails and lodges, and projects in Arkansas included Lake Dick (NR-listed July 3, 1975) in Jefferson County and Mount Magazine.[26]

In 1937, Almand was able to return to private practice in Little Rock, something that he truly enjoyed.  However, with the onset of World War II in the 1940s, private construction stopped, and Almand was forced once again to look at something other than private practice.[27]

In the fall of 1942, Almand began work as the construction engineer for Naval Air Stations being built in Traverse City, Michigan, and Corpus Christi, Texas.  The work with the Navy lasted just over a year, and Almand returned to Little Rock again late in 1943.  Although he was able to do some architectural work, the effects of World War II still plagued him.  As a result, in order to supplement his family’s income, Almand turned to raising broilers.  He built a chicken house on the north side of the vacant lot east of his home on 14th Street and raised the chickens for about two years until the effects of World War II eased.  Due to growing up on a farm, and also being involved in farming in the 1920s, Almand was able to make enough money from raising broilers to live comfortably.[28]

After World War II, Almand’s practice returned to normal.  As before the war, Almand’s commissions during the 1940s and 1950s encompassed a wide variety of building types including churches, residences, educational buildings, as well as the North Little Rock Funeral Home.  Also, as before World War II, Almand ventured a little bit into developing, specifically developing the East Palisades Addition in Little Rock in the mid 1950s (Almand and his wife would move into a house he designed at 27 East Palisades in 1956).[29]

Almand designed the Oak Forest Methodist Church in Little Rock and the Crossett Methodist Church at the same time (both buildings completed in 1949).  The Oak Forest Methodist Church is strikingly similar to the Crossett Methodist Church, with the biggest difference being the use of field stone as a wall material (rather than the brick used on the Crossett church).  Like the Methodist Church in Crossett, the Oak Forest Church features an irregular plan, a steeply pitched roof covered in tile, flat buttresses, pointed arch windows, an entrance and pointed arch stained glass window with tracery situated in a recessed pointed arch opening lined with cast stone blocks, and a stepped parapet culminating in a bell tower with a thin metal spire.[30]  In addition, Almand’s 1954 design for the sanctuary at the First Presbyterian Church of North Little Rock is similar to the Crossett Methodist Church in that it has a steeply pitched roof with slightly flared eaves and a side-gabled loggia with pointed arch openings.  Almand’s similar designs for these three churches indicate a pattern in his work and show his preference for this distinctive combination of the Tudor Revival and Gothic Revival styles.

Throughout his career, Almand was characterized as a very hard worker who demanded hard work from those he worked with.  In fact, on several occasions, he would require contractors to redo work if it did not live up to his standards.  However, in 1962, Almand suffered a slight stroke.  Although he recovered, he suffered another stroke in mid-1963.  He never fully recovered from it, and on March 24, 1969, John Parks Almand passed away as the result of a heart attack.  After his funeral at First Methodist Church in Little Rock, he was buried in the Mount Holly Mausoleum.  However, his legacy on Arkansas’s built environment is significant, spanning a time period of almost fifty years and reaching all across the state.[31]

The Crossett Methodist Church has been well-maintained over the years and remains an architectural landmark in the sawmill town of Crossett.  Knowing that the church was located along a major thoroughfare in Crossett, church member and Crossett Company sales manager Adam Trieschmann mounted a prayer plaque on a stone in front of the new church building shortly after its completion in 1949.  He intended for sawmill employees to read the prayer as they walked by on their way to work at the mill.  The “Trieschmann Stone,” as it is now called, reads:  “O Lord, grant that each one who has to do with me today may be the happier for it, let it be given me each hour today what I shall say, and grant me the wisdom of a loving heart that I may say the right thing rightly.  Help me to enter into the mind of everyone who talks with me, and keep me alive to the feelings of each one present, give me a quick eye for little kindnesses that I may be ready in doing them and gracious in receiving them.  Give me a quick perception of the feelings and needs of others and make me eager hearted in helping them.Amen.”[32]



[1] John W. Buckner, Wilderness Lady (Little Rock:  Rose Publishing Company, 1979):4-5; John W. Buckner, Cap Gates’s Tent City (Little Rock:  Rose Publishing Company, 1983):  1-3; Bill Norman, “Edward Savage Crossett,” Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture; Internet, available from http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=2431; accessed 24 October 2009; Bill Norman, “Crossett,” Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture; Internet, available from http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?search=1&entryID=821; accessed 22 October 2009.

[2] Buckner, Wilderness Lady, 8.

[3] Buckner, Wilderness Lady, 7-8; Buckner, Cap Gates’s Tent City, 2-3; Norman, “Edward Savage Crossett,” Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture.

[4] Buckner, Cap Gates’s Tent City, 5-11.

[5] Buckner, Wilderness Lady, 8.

[6] Buckner, Cap Gates’s Tent City, 4.

[7] Buckner, Cap Gates’s Tent City, 13; Buckner, Wilderness Lady, 10, 13.

[8] Buckner, Wilderness Lady, 12-13; Norman, “Crossett,” Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture.

[9] O. H. Darling, Jr., and Bill Norman, “Yale Camp,” Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture; Internet, available from http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=2324; accessed 24 October 2009.

[10] Darling and Norman, “Yale Camp,” Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture.

[11] Buckner, Wilderness Lady, 32; Don C. Bragg and James M. Guldin, “Crossett Experimental Forest,” Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture; Internet, available from http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?search=1&entryID=4317; accessed 24 October 2009.

[12] Norman, “Crossett,” Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture.

[13] Buckner, Wilderness Lady, 31.

[14] W. E. Ned Hastings, “History of First United Methodist Church, Crossett, Arkansas,” pamphlet (1993):2-3; Buckner, Cap Gates’s Tent City, 15-18.

[15] Hastings, “History of First United Methodist Church,” 3-4; Buckner, Cap Gates’s Tent City, 18.

[16] The one-room church built in 1902 was demolished in 1904.

Arthur M. Shaw, “History of First United Methodist Church, Crossett, Arkansas:  The A. M. Shaw Journal, 1903-04,” pamphlet (undated):1-11; Deirdre Kelley, “Shaw Blazed New Trails in Crossett Company Town,” Ashley County News Observer (undated newspaper clipping in collection of First United Methodist Church):  1A-2A; Hastings, “History of First United Methodist Church,” 5-6; Buckner, Wilderness Lady, 37; Sanborn Fire Insurance Company, “Crossett, Ashley County, Arkansas,” map (June 1908).

[17] Buckner, Wilderness Lady, 30, 36; Hastings, “History of First United Methodist Church,” 11.

[18] When the new church was completed in 1949, the church at Main and Third streets was demolished.  The largest and most divisive split in the Methodist Church happened in 1844 over the issue of slavery (the Methodist Protestant Church had already split off).  The Methodist Episcopal Church, South supported slavery, while the Methodist Episcopal Church did not.  The break would not be healed until the “Uniting Conference” of 1939, where you get the formation of The Methodist Church.  The Crossett congregation was aligned with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South until 1939.  When the current church building was constructed in 1949, it was called the Crossett Methodist Church.  The United Methodist Church was created in 1968 when the Methodist Church joined with the Evangelical United Brethren Church in Dallas, TX.  Therefore, the church is now called the First United Methodist Church of Crossett.

Hastings, “History of First United Methodist Church,” 11; Sanborn Fire Insurance Company, “Crossett, Ashley County, Arkansas,” map (August 1948).

[19] Almand, A. J.  John Parks Almand, Architect:  A Biography of my Father (Privately printed, 1976):2, 25, 29; Ralph S. Wilcox, “Block Realty-Baker House,” National Register of Historic Places Registration Form.  From the files of the Arkansas Historic Preservation Program (2008):  Section 8, Page 4-6.

[20] Almand, John Parks Almand, Architect, 30-31.

[21] Almand, John Parks Almand, Architect, 33-34.

[22] Almand, John Parks Almand, Architect, 36.

[23] Almand, John Parks Almand, Architect, 37.

[24] Almand, John Parks Almand, Architect, 45.

[25] Almand, John Parks Almand, Architect, 48.

[26] Almand, John Parks Almand, Architect, 49-50.

[27] Almand, John Parks Almand, Architect, 50, 52.

[28] Almand, John Parks Almand, Architect, 52-53.

[29] Almand, John Parks Almand, Architect, 59-60.

[30] Ralph S. Wilcox, “Oak Forest Methodist Church,” Arkansas Architectural Resources Form.  From the files of the Arkansas Historic Preservation Program (2008).

[31] Almand, John Parks Almand, Architect, 56, 62, 65.

[32] Hastings, “History of First United Methodist Church,” 5-6.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Crossett Methodist Church is being nominated to the National Register of Historic Places with local significance under Criterion C and Criteria Consideration A as a unique combination of the Tudor Revival and Gothic Revival styles designed by noted Arkansas architect John Parks Almand.  The church’s irregular plan, asymmetrical façade, steeply pitched roof, multi-level eaves, and slightly flared eaves are characteristics of the Tudor Revival style.  However, the use of elaborate tracery, pointed arch openings, buttresses, and statuary provide a subtle Gothic Revival-style influence.   In addition, the Crossett Methodist Church is strikingly similar to two other churches designed by Almand during this period, one of which was also completed in 1949.  This eclectic church is one of the most architecturally significant buildings in Crossett.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Almand, A. J.  John Parks Almand, Architect:  A Biography of my Father.  (Privately printed, 1976).

Bragg, Don C. and James M. Guldin.  “Crossett Experimental Forest.”  Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture; Internet, available from http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?search=1&entryID=4317; accessed 24 October 2009.

Buckner, John W.  Cap Gates’s Tent City.  (Little Rock:  Rose Publishing Company, 1983).

Buckner, John W.  Wilderness Lady.  (Little Rock:  Rose Publishing Company, 1979).

Cole, Emily, ed.  The Grammar of Architecture.  (New York:  Metro Books, 2002).

“Crossett Completes New Parsonage.”  Undated newspaper clipping in collection of First United Methodist Church, Crossett, Arkansas.

Darling, O. H., Jr., and Bill Norman.  “Yale Camp.”  Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture; Internet, available from http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=2324; accessed 24 October 2009.

First United Methodist Church.  “Church History.”  Internet, available from http://www.gbgm-umc.org/fumcrossett/history.htm; accessed 19 October 2009.

Hastings, W. E. Ned.  “History of First United Methodist Church, Crossett, Arkansas.” Pamphlet (1993).

Hastings, W. E. Ned.  “Methodist Church was Crossett’s First.”  Ashley County News Observer (12 April 1995):  2C.

“History of First United Methodist Church, Crossett, Arkansas.”  Unpublished presentation to the Annual Charge Conference.  From the files of the First United Methodist Church, Crossett, Arkansas (1998).

Kelley, Deirdre.  “Shaw Blazed New Trails in Crossett Company Town.”  Ashley County News Observer (undated):  1A-2A.

McAlester, Virginia and Lee.  A Field Guide to American Houses.  (New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 2006).

Norman, Bill.  “Crossett.”  Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture; Internet, available from http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?search=1&entryID=821; accessed 22 October 2009.

Norman, Bill.  “Edward Savage Crossett.”  Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture; Internet, available from http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=2431; accessed 24 October 2009.

Reynolds, Joann.  “From the Start Churches Have Played a Major Role in Life and Development of City of Crossett.”  Undated newspaper clipping in collection of First United Methodist Church, Crossett, Arkansas. 

Sanborn Fire Insurance Company.  “Crossett, Ashley County, Arkansas.”  Map (June 1908 & August 1948).

Shaw, Arthur M.  “History of First United Methodist Church, Crossett, Arkansas:  The A. M. Shaw Journal, 1903-04.”  Pamphlet (undated).

Wilcox, Ralph S.  “Block Realty-Baker House.”  National Register of Historic Places Registration Form.  From the files of the Arkansas Historic Preservation Program (2008).

Wilcox, Ralph S.  “Oak Forest Methodist Church.”  Arkansas Architectural Resources Form.  From the files of the Arkansas Historic Preservation Program (2008).