Arkansas Historic Preservation Program
Rosenwald School
Rosenwald School

ROSENWALD SCHOOL, DELIGHT, PIKE COUNTY

SUMMARY

The Rosenwald School survives in its original location as an excellent example of Depression-era W.P.A. construction, and as a part of Rosenwald's legacy as the foremost benefactor to negro education in the South; therefore, it is being nominated under criteria A and C, with national significance.

ELABORATION

Contrary to common belief, the education of many southern black Americans took place on southern plantations while many were slaves.  Some masters allowed a few of their slaves to become skilled workers or artisans by permitting them to be apprentices or employees of craftsmen outside the plantation.  In fact, it was quite profitable for the plantation to have a number of skilled slaves in order to avoid having to hire expensive mechanics, craftsmen, machinists, seamstresses, etc.  Education was also taking place among the children, often without the master's knowledge.  Many of the children of the masters thought it quite amusing to play “school” and teach the slave children how to read and do math.  To the children it was a game, but in actuality it was part of the beginning of the black education movement in the South after the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.  In fact, many slaves were able to use their talents and skills to gain their manumission, or to do enough work outside the plantation to buy their way out of slavery.

After the Emancipation Proclamation and the flight of the blacks to northern cities, many religious organizations and education-oriented groups realized the need for education among the black refugees.  Plantation life had left many blacks unable to cope with life in the city or with finding jobs.  Benevolent societies sprang up in cities such as Boston, Chicago, New York, Cincinnati, and Philadelphia in 1862-1863.  Together with church organizations, they provided food, clothing, religious leaders, money, and teachers for the newcomers.  Church organizations were the leaders in the freedman's school system in its beginning stages.  At the forefront of the religious groups was the American Missionary Association, organized in 1849 to operate Christian missions and educational institutions at home and abroad.  Other religious groups included The Baptist Church, North (or Home Mission Society), the Freedman's Aid Society, and the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church; a great deal of the money and supplies these groups provided  were dispensed though the Union Army.  In March, 1862 the New England Freedman's Society, along with General Edward L. Pierce and numerous other educators, initiated The Port Royal Experiment.  The experiment involved developing the economy, directing blacks to economic independence, and organizing schools.

In 1863 the Freedman's Inquiry Commission suggested the creation of a government agency to deal specifically with the care of the freedmen.  In 1865 Congress passed an act creating the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, otherwise known as the Freedmen's Bureau.  The Bureau was useful because it committed the United States to the task of caring for the freedmen, and because it made that care a part of the official structure by which the South was being controlled.  Even though the Freedmen's Bureau was able to remedy many of the flaws of the relief programs for the freedmen, it was the strongly motivated individuals of the religious groups and benevolent organizations that were mainly responsible for the education of the blacks.  These individuals were for the most part devout Christians and well-trained teachers from New England.

One of the zealous individuals that became one of the most significant figures in southern black education was Julius Rosenwald.  Rosenwald was quite successful as a businessman, but his philanthropic work has always overshadowed his financial success.  He entered the clothing business in New York in 1878.  In 1895 he invested $35,000 in the stock of Sears, Roebuck, and Company, and in less than thirty years it grew into $150,000,000.  He became president of the mail-order firm in 1910 and then chairman in 1925.  During the years Rosenwald was most active as a philanthropist, Sears and Roebuck expanded into the retail chain-store business, and he was actually absent from the company from 1916 to 1919.  As early as 1910, Rosenwald was a trustee of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama and made gifts on behalf of the rural school movement to the Institute, primarily through close contact with Booker T. Washington.  His funds made possible the erection of sixteen YMCA buildings and one YWCA building for blacks.  This stimulated gifts from others for similar projects in many cities in both the North and South, including the financial support for a large black housing project in Chicago.  Rosenwald was active in a number of Jewish organizations and granted substantial financial support to the National Urban League.  Also, he was appointed a member of the Council on National Defense and served as chairman of its committee on supplies.

In 1917 Rosenwald established the Julius Rosenwald Fund.  This fund was destined to attract more money to the benefit of black education than any other philanthropic undertaking to this date.  The fund's broad purpose was for the betterment of mankind irrespective of race, but it was aimed more specifically at creating more equitable opportunities for black Americans.  Unlike many charity organizations, the Rosenwald Fund sought to motivate blacks and whites to help themselves.  The policy of the Rosenwald Fund was to only help a school if the community, blacks and whites alike, had raised some of the money themselves; however, the black community usually provided the labor.  Rosenwald and the directors of his trust first directed their attention toward building rural schools (such as the one in Delight), later toward high schools and colleges, and finally toward the providing of grants and fellowships to enable outstanding blacks and whites to advance their careers.  Not only did the Rosenwald Fund help to build rural schools, it was also responsible for a number of buildings and libraries on college campuses.  The directors of the trust were also involved to a certain extent in the direction of the curriculum at all levels of education.  Their emphasis was on the educational needs of country children.  They maintained that some vocational skills were necessary, as were the ability to do some math, to read and write clearly, to have some understanding of biological processes and farming, and to understand the fundamentals of sanitation and health.

State records indicate that when the fund ceased activity in 1948, it had aided in the building of 389 school buildings in 35 counties in Arkansas.  The total amount contributed by the fund was $1,952,441.  The state or counties owned and maintained all of the schools, and the land was usually donated by a white landowner.  In Arkansas, R. C. Childress of Little Rock was the Rosenwald Building Agent.  Childress was the first degree graduate of Philander Smith College and was the second black person to work for the state Education Department.  He dedicated his life to education and, consequently, the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff has named Childress Hall for him, and the high schools in Wynne and Nashville were named for him.

The Rosenwald School in Delight is representative of the typical Rosenwald school in Arkansas in population, curriculum, and architecture.  It was a two-teacher, eight-grade school, and a number of white students attended the school as well.  The Delight school, like most of the others in Arkansas, fell into disuse in the 1970's when the policy of desegregation became common practice.

The Rosenwald School in Delight is nationally significant because it is a symbol of the extensive work Rosenwald and his fund did for the education of blacks and whites throughout the South.  In effect, Rosenwald changed the course of education in the South, and in race relations and education throughout the United States.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Biography, by Saul Engelbourg, New York:  McGraw-Hill, 1973, p. 279.

Encyclopedia Americana, Danbury, Connecticut:  Grolier Incorporated, 1987.

A History of Negro Education in the South, by Henry Allen Bullock, Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1967.

“Power Lunch in Chicago in 1911 Led to Schools for Southern Blacks,” Arkansas Gazette, February 20, 1989, pp. IB-2B.