Arkansas Historic Preservation Program
McDonald's Store #433 Sign
McDonald's Store #433 Sign

MCDONALD'S STORE #433 SIGN, PINE BLUFF, JEFFERSON COUNTY

SUMMARY

The McDonald’s Store #433 Sign at 1300 South Main Street in Pine Bluff, which was built c.1962, is the only known surviving example of an early single-arch McDonald’s sign in Arkansas.  Since the opening of the first McDonald’s in Des Plaines, Illinois, in June 1955, the company has employed a wide variety of sign designs as their corporate logo and identity has been updated.  As a result, examples of early McDonald’s signs usually have not survived and due to its rarity, the McDonald’s Store #433 Sign is being nominated to the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion C with statewide significance as a good example of an early single-arch McDonald’s sign.  The sign is also significant as a rare surviving example of an early backlit plastic sign, a type of sign that became popular in the late 1950s and 1960s and revolutionized the sign industry after World War II.  Since the McDonald’s Store #433 Sign is the only known example of an early single-arch McDonald’s sign in Arkansas, it meets the “exceptional importance” requirements of Criteria Consideration G:  Properties That Have Achieved Significance Within the Past Fifty Years.

ELABORATION

Americans’ affinity for dining away from home preceded the automobile era. Drug store soda fountains and ice cream shops prospered during the horse transportation era.  The car, however, offered a new dining opportunity.

Families traveling cross-country in their cars provided the business for the most successful roadside restaurant franchise of the 1930s and 1940s, Howard Johnson’s.  Howard Johnson’s cleverly combined the respectable family dining often found in the roadside tearooms of the1920s with the convenience of a soda shop.  By mandating structure design and regulating menu items and food preparation, these franchises offered familiarity to auto-tourists as they traveled along unfamiliar roads.[1]

Hamburger and hot dog stands gained new respectability in the mid-1920s with the spread of the White Castle chain.  Serving consistently decent food quickly and inexpensively from a sanitary environment, White Castle eliminated the fear of the unknown that had previously characterized hamburger joints and greasy spoons.[2]

With chains such as White Castle and Howard Johnson’s, the sign was never really an integral part of the design or recognizable as a freestanding element.  With White Castle, the architecture of the building, whether built of brick, concrete block, or porcelain-enameled steel panels, was its calling card, with its corner turret and cornice crenellations.[3]

Howard Johnson’s also made the building and its architecture the company’s advertisement.  Sites selected for restaurants made them visible from great distances.  Although the restaurants were complemented by a sign out front, the building itself was meant to be the main form of advertisement.  The Georgian architectural elements (i.e., cupola, hipped or gable roofs, symmetry if possible, and Georgian decoration) applied to a building that was in character with New England’s past, and the bright orange, white and blue-green color scheme, made them easily recognizable.  The sense of dignity and order was also emphasized by foundation plantings around the building and the sign.[4]

The early twentieth century also saw the development of the drive-in restaurant.  Most early drive-ins consisted of a round or rectangular building with eye-catching advertisements on its roof.  Customers encircled the building with their cars. Drive-in restaurants boomed after the World War II rationing of gasoline, tires, building materials and foodstuffs ended.  Most post-war drive-ins sported distinctive pavilions to shelter attendants and vehicles.  The Exaggerated Moderne design reigned in the 1950s to the mid-1960s.  Characterized by projecting roofs and bright, flashing signs, Exaggerated Moderne drive-ins were designed in “the rock n’ roll style.”[5]

Diners developed simultaneously with the drive-in.  The city cousin to the rural chuckwagon, dining cars maneuvered through the streets in search of customers.  As their popularity grew they became permanently affixed in one location.  By the 1920s, diners were a booming business.[6]  Offering a varied and inexpensive fare, they survived the Great Depression and expanded their customer base.  “By the early 1930s the diner had become one of the most democratic of all eating places,” with individuals of various professions and classes frequenting them.[7]  In the late 1940s, diners traded their wheels for streamlined designs and larger windows.  A decade later, when their popularity wavered, designers abandoned the boxcar motif in favor of the Exaggerated Moderne style, which only remotely resembled original diners.

Following the self-service trend in other retail industries characterizing the 1940s and 1950s, McDonald’s mass-produced cheap, uniform food extremely quickly.  By encouraging customers to drive through, they increased the number of people that could be served in an hour.  McDonald’s became the prototype for numerous fast-food chains to follow.[8]

Early McDonald’s locations were noted both for their signs and buildings.  The standardized design of the restaurants along with the theme of the golden arches that permeated both the buildings and the signs created an easily recognized landmark for travelers and patrons.  Many of the other early automobile restaurants, on the other hand, focused only on the building as the major eye-catcher.

The first McDonald’s restaurant opened in San Bernardino, California, in 1948 and was the brainchild of brothers Dick and Mac McDonald.  Their restaurant was based on an entirely new concept that included speedy service, low prices, and big volume.  In order to accomplish their goals they did not use car-hops -- which were a standard feature at drive-ins of the period -- but rather employed self-service at the restaurant’s counter.  They also kept their menu limited in order to keep the restaurant more efficient.[9]

The success of the restaurant caught the attention of Ray Kroc, a milkshake machine salesman from Illinois, who had heard from people who wanted mixers like those used by the McDonald brothers.  Kroc described his visit to the McDonald’s restaurant in San Bernardino in his book Grinding it Out:

"…I was as green as a Shamrock Shake on St. Patrick’s Day when I heard about an incredible thing that was happening with my Multimixer out in California.

"…In essence, the message was always the same, 'I want one of those mixers of yours like the McDonald brothers have in San Bernardino, California.'  I got curiouser and curiouser. Who were these McDonald brothers, and why were customers picking up on the Multimixer from them when I had similar machines in lots of places?… So I did some checking and was astonished to learn that the McDonalds had not one Multimixer, not two or three, but eight!  The mental picture of eight Multimixers churning out forty shakes at one time was just too much to be believed.

"…I flew out to Los Angeles one day and made some routine calls with my representative there.  …I cruised past the McDonald’s location about 10 A.M., and I was not terrifically impressed.  There was a smallish octagonal building, a very humble sort of structure situated on a corner lot about 200 feet square.  It was a typical, ordinary-looking drive-in.  As the 11 o’clock opening time approached, I parked my car and watched the helpers begin to show up – all men, dressed in spiffy white shirts and trousers and white paper hats.  …Then the cars began to arrive, and the lines started to form.  Soon the parking lot was full and people were marching up to the windows and back to their cars with bags full of hamburgers.  Eight Multimixers churning away at one time began to seem a lot less farfetched in light of this steady procession of customers lockstepping up to the windows."[10]

Kroc was so impressed with what he saw at the McDonald’s restaurant in San Bernardino that he met with the McDonald brothers about opening more and more of their restaurants around the country.  A deal was struck and in 1954 Kroc became the first franchisee of the McDonald brothers.  He opened his first restaurant in Des Plaines, Illinois, the following year and the McDonald’s Corporation was created.[11]

The restaurant that Kroc built in Des Plaines followed a design that was drawn up by an architect hired by the McDonald brothers to replace their stand in San Bernardino.  Kroc described the building as “red and white with touches of yellow, and [it] had snazzy looking oversized windows.  It had some improved serving features …and it had washrooms in back.  …What made the new building unique was a set of arches that went right through the roof.  There was a tall sign out front with arches that had neon tubes lighting the underside.  I could see plenty of problems there.  The arches of the sign looked like they would topple over in a strong wind, and those neon lights would need constant attention to keep them from fading out and looking tacky.  But I liked the basic idea of the arches and most of the other features of the design, too.”[12]  The design was used for other McDonald’s restaurants up into the late 1960s and early 1970s.

The parabolic arch that became synonymous with the McDonald’s chain was something that by the mid-twentieth century evoked modernism in design.  Simple parabolic curves were used by the French engineer Eugéne Freyssinet in a design for dirigible hangars outside of Paris at Orly airport in 1916, and Le Corbusier proposed a large parabolic arch to support an auditorium for the Palace of the Soviets in Moscow in 1931.  However, the parabolic form became most well known through Eero Saarinen’s design for the Jefferson Westward Expansion Memorial in St. Louis, which although not built until the 1960s, received large amounts of publicity in 1948.  The significance of the arch, according to Philip Langdon in his book, Orange Roofs, Golden Arches:  The Architecture of American Chain Restaurants, was a “buoyant spirit:a feeling of skyward momentum, symbolic of an aerospace age in which man could hurtle himself into the heavens.”[13]

Although the McDonald’s arch did not need to span great distances without obstructions as its predecessors did, it wanted to convey their futuristic look.  The purpose, according to Langdon, was to create “the appearance of dynamic structural modernism in a roadside hamburger stand.”  The idea of using dynamic structural modernism eventually spread to other chain restaurants, such as Carrols, a hamburger chain that employed large blue wings or fins on each side of its buildings.[14]

The design of the McDonald’s restaurants and signs made them instant landmarks for travelers and patrons seeking a good, fast meal.Sign Crafters of Evansville, Indiana, the largest sign maker in Indiana, was hired to manufacture the early signs for the new restaurants, and one of the early designs had a giant arch crowned by a hamburger in the shape of a figure, named Speedee, holding a ladle.[15]  Although the basic design of the McDonald’s sign, the large golden arch with red advertising space, remained constant up through c.1962, the details of it were modified by the early 1960s when the sign in Pine Bluff was built.

The growth of the McDonald’s chain was very fast, and it was not long before the growth was noted around the country.  In 1958, Chicago Daily Tribune columnist Herb Lyon reported that the “National Restaurant Association conventioneers are besieging Chicago’s Ray Kroc for dope on how he sells hamburgers for fifteen cents and built an eighty store chain operation in three years.”[16]  By 1959 McDonald’s had opened its 100th restaurant, the 500th opened in 1963, and the frantic growth of the chain continued beyond that.[17]  By c.1960, McDonald’s expanded into Arkansas, and by c.1962 they were ready to open their 433rd restaurant on South Main Street in Pine Bluff.

Pine Bluff’s South Main Street neighborhood, where the McDonald’s was built, was developed in the first part of the twentieth century as mainly a residential neighborhood.  (A marble works existed on the west side of South Main in between 13th and 14th avenues, but that was the exception.)  The east side of South Main developed first with most of the lots built on by1908, and the west side developed in the next couple of decades.  By April 1913 a house had been built on the lot currently occupied by the McDonald’s.[18]

As the mid-twentieth century approached, the South Main Street corridor began a transition, and small commercial establishments began to spring up among the surrounding residences.  With South Main Street being the main commercial thoroughfare of Pine Bluff historically, it was only natural for commercial activity to expand southward from the downtown area.  The location chosen for the McDonald’s at 1300 S. Main Street was on the main road into downtown and easily accessible to the city’s commercial core along with the surrounding residential neighborhoods.

McDonald’s Store #433 opened c.1962 and the restaurant was originally built like the other McDonald’s restaurants of the period with the red, white, and yellow color scheme and the arches that went through the roof.  The sign that accompanied the restaurant also followed the corporate design for the period with the single golden arch and red advertising space in the middle, although the appearance of Speedee, the ladle-holding mascot, was no longer part of the design.  (Speedee was dropped as the official McDonald’s mascot in 1962 when the company opted for the new look of a pair of golden arches that could be read as an “M.”[19]  The sign in Pine Bluff represents a transition between the two designs.)

McDonald’s used a couple of different designs of single-arch signs in the early years of the company.  The two main types of signs were:

1)  Speedee sign – Speedee appeared on signs beginning with the first one in Downey, California, in 1953.  Most Speedee signs were comprised of a single golden arch, a red advertising space, and Speedee holding a sign on top of the space near the top of the arch.  The top of the arch and sign’s letters had neon lighting and neon vertical stripes appeared around Speedee.  (The Downey sign, although it featured Speedee, the large single arch, and the red advertising space, was a unique design all its own.)

One variation of the Speedee sign included Speedee in the red advertising space and did not include the vertical neon stripes filling in the top of the arch.

2)  Backlit single-arch sign – Generally, the backlit single-arch sign consists of plastic panels in a metal frame.  The hallmarks of the sign include the single golden arch, and red (or red & white in rare cases) advertising space about halfway up the arch.  The type has several variations:

a.  On some signs the advertising space is red on the top and bottom with the middle portion, with the word “HAMBURGERS,” being white.  Lettering on the red portions is white while the lettering on the white portion is black.  Most of the signs have the McDonald’s herald in the top corners, though not all.

b.  On most signs, the portion of the advertising space with the word “HAMBURGERS” on it projects out from the rest of the space.  However, on a few examples, the “HAMBURGER” line’s space is in line with the rest of the advertising space.[20]

According to Michael Bullinger, the Archives Manager at the Golden Archives at the McDonald’s Corporation Office, the design of the sign in Pine Bluff was only used for a short period of time.  Bullinger states that “Richard and Maurice McDonald (The McDonald brothers) sent a photograph of the family crest to Ray Kroc.  Mr. Kroc decided to incorporate the crest into the McDonald's road sign.  The crest was also included on menu boards and on the restaurant's marquee.  It was manufactured by Sign Crafters, Inc., of Evansville, Indiana.  Rohm & Haas Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, manufactured the plastic sheets.  This design first appears in the company publication titled the McDonald's Newsletter in mid-1961.  This sign was succeeded by a double-arch sign design.  A McDonald’s in Denver, Colorado, that opened on September 25, 1962, was the first to feature a double arch sign.”[21]  Given the fact that the design was only used for approximately one year, the design employed for the sign in Pine Bluff was likely relatively rare when it was first built, and certainly is today.

The Pine Bluff sign is an early example of the backlit sign design for the chain.  Neon signs with Speedee were being built as late as 1961, as evidenced by the sign that was built at the store at 3117 South Topeka Boulevard in Topeka, Kansas.[22]  As a result, the Pine Bluff sign appears to be a very late iteration of the single-arch design, and a hybrid between the early neon Speedee signs and the later backlit “Golden Arches” signs.  The particular design used in Pine Bluff was used in other areas of the country at the same time.  Other known examples were in Penn Hills, PA; Magnolia, NJ (recently extant); and Lancaster, PA (recently extant).

The development of McDonald’s signs and the evolution from the neon signs of the 1950s and early 1960s to the backlit signs of the 1960s and beyond reflects the evolution of the sign industry after World War II.After World War II, neon remained popular, especially as soldiers coming back from the war learned new trades, including the neon trade at the Egani Institute in New York City.  In addition, the development of color TV, and some of the colors used in the sets, relied on neon.[23]

However, the sign industry also began to change after World War II, especially as manufacturers of fluorescent lamps and plastic started promoting Plexiglas shadow boxes with fluorescent lights behind graphics and letters.  Since they were available in a wide range of colors, they started to become the “new look” in signs after the war.  Also, since many of these companies sold directly to the consumers, and not through the electric-sign industry, neon signs, which were now considered old-fashioned, were dealt a fatal blow in the 1950s.[24]

The use of plastics, especially colored translucent plastics, was revolutionary to the whole sign industry, since it reduced the need for specialized maintenance service.  As a result, signs could be sold directly without a maintenance agreement attached to them.[25]  Plastic was also advantageous over other material since it could take almost any shape, was relatively durable, was inexpensive, and could be mass-produced.[26]

Even though plastic signs started to take off after World War II, neon remained popular into the 1960s until the backlit sign was touted as the new look.  When price, rather than design became a determining factor in sign sales, neon suffered a further recession to backlit plastic signs.[27]  The proliferation of plastic backlit signs and their effects on the neon industry is manifested in several different ways.  First, there are now approximately fifteen colors of neon available where there were once thirty.  Additionally, only two companies currently make transformers for the signs as apposed to twenty companies during neon’s heyday.  Finally, there are a lot fewer skilled workers familiar with neon, and fewer still are learning the trade.  In New York, for example, where there were 400 people bending glass for neon signs, there are only about a dozen people involved in the trade.  Even in Las Vegas, only two companies make tubing for neon signs, and it comprises less than 5% of their total sales.  Repairing existing signs is their principal activity.[28]

With respect to McDonald’s the neon used in the arches of the signs (and buildings) began to be replaced with fluorescent lights and yellow plastic covers about 1959.  It made the signs sturdier than neon and also produced a more consistent color that was bright yellow, day or night.[29]

The single-arch sign design like that in Pine Bluff reflects a couple of things about McDonald’s.  First, it illustrates the fact that McDonald’s seemed to be progressive in using modern designs and technology – employing backlit signs versus neon signs – at the beginning of their popularity.  Second, it illustrates the trend that they seem to have begun whereby the sign mimicked the building and “exploit[ed] dynamic modern architectural imagery.”[30]  (The trend-setting nature of McDonald’s is also reflected in their switch to brick-veneered restaurants with mansard roofs, the so-called “Environmental Look,” that was eventually adopted by Burger King, Dunkin’ Donuts, and other chains as well.[31])

McDonald’s signs were pioneering and innovative in that the design of the sign mimicked the design of the building, specifically the presence of the large arch.  Other chains had signs by the early 1960s that also mimicked elements of their buildings designs.  Carrols, Burger Chef, and even Pizza Hut had signs that mimicked parts of their buildings, usually the roofline, by the late 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s.  With respect to Carrols, “the most striking architectural feature, however, was a pair of big blue boomerangs – ‘wings’ or ‘fins,’ the company called them – one attached to each side of the building, as if ready to fly into the sky.  Here, for the first time [1956 was when the first Carrols opened], was a major fast-food chain exploiting dynamic modern architectural imagery just as aggressively as McDonald’s.”  The blue wings or fins were also an integral part of the restaurant chain’s signage.[32]

“The extraordinary success of McDonald’s made it a model to follow and gave it an enormous impact on the character of both the restaurant business and the man-made environment.  …Many of them copied either the specifics or the spirit of the McDonald’s building.”[33]  It is known that at least one chain, Burger Chef, was directly influenced by McDonald’s.  “Its standard building, designed by Indianapolis architect Harry E. Cooler, and its roadside sign, devised in conjunction with the Grate Sign Company of Joliet, Illinois, had what signmaker Tony Grate called the ‘kite look.’  ‘McDonald’s had the arches that added height to their building,’ Grate recalled.  ‘We did the same thing, but Burger Chef didn’t have the financial capability of McDonald’s, so we had to do it cheaply.’”[34]  Other chains also had large signs that were done initially in neon but later in backlit plastic, including Burger King, although others, specifically Arby’s, kept signs with exterior light bulbs and some neon into the 1960s and 1970s.[35]

Things changed at McDonald’s when Fred Turner replaced Ray Kroc as president of the company in 1968.Turner made some changes in the corporate identity of the company that did away with many of the trademarks that Kroc had developed.  “Under Turner, the garish, mightily illumined drive-ins Kroc had made famous disappeared; the red-and-white-tile exteriors were replaced by dull brown brick, lots of plate glass, and a sleek-sloping, double-mansard, shingled roof.  The pulsing, exuberant Golden Arches were streamlined into the current subdued, nonbiodegradable yellow plastic logo that rears more gently from the road.”[36]

The changes that were made to the national McDonald’s corporate identity also manifested themselves to a certain extant at Store #433 in Pine Bluff.  In the early 1970s, the original restaurant building was replaced by one of the updated designs with the brown brick, plate glass, and double-mansard roof.  However, for some reason, the original sign was retained, although it was modified to reflect the fact that the restaurant now had a drive-thru.  It also appears that a few of the plastic panels have been replaced over the years, likely due to damage of the originals, but the replacements match the originals in color and material.

Currently, only two signs associated with corporations have been placed on the National Register, the Bekins Storage Company Roof Sign in Pasadena, California, (NR listed 10/15/97) built prior to 1944, and the Shell Oil Company “Spectacular” Sign in Cambridge, Massachusetts, (NR listed 06/03/94) built in 1933 and moved to its current location in 1944.  However, given the frequency with which corporations reinvent themselves and change their corporate logos, it is significant that the McDonald’s Store #433 Sign has remained intact and in use since its construction c.1962.  Single-arch McDonald’s signs are fairly rare nationwide, and the sign in Pine Bluff represents the last remaining example in Arkansas, making it a significant object related to the early history of McDonald’s and the fast-food industry in the state and the evolution of the sign industry after World War II.

Today, McDonald’s Store #433 Sign at 1300 South Main Street in Pine Bluff is a living reminder of McDonald’s phenomenal growth in the mid to late twentieth century, and the rich history of McDonald’s presence in Pine Bluff since c.1962.McDonald’s Store #433 Sign is an excellent example of an early single-arch McDonald’s sign and the only known surviving example in Arkansas.  The sign is also significant as a rare surviving example of an early backlit plastic sign, a type of sign that revolutionized the sign industry after World War II and really started to proliferate during the late 1950s and early 1960s.The survival and continued preservation of McDonald’s Store #433 Sign is a monument to the dedication of McDonald’s to the preservation of Arkansas’s commercial past.



[1] Liebs, Chester H.  Main Street to Miracle Mile.  Boston:  Little, Brown and Company, 1985, p. 202.

[2] Ibid, pp. 206-207.

[3] Langdon, Philip.  Orange Roofs, Golden Arches:  The Architecture of American Chain Restaurants.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1986, pp. 29-34.

[4] Ibid, pp. 47-55.

[5] Ibid, pp. 210-211.

[6] Ibid, p. 215.

[7] Ibid, p. 217.

[8] Ibid, p. 215.

[9] “McDonald’s History.”  Found at: http://www.mcdonalds.ca/pdfs/history_final.pdf.

[10] Kroc, Ray, with Robert Anderson.  Grinding it Out:  The Making of McDonald’s.  Chicago:  Henry Regnery Company, 1977, pp.6-7.

[11] “A Brief History of McDonald’s.”  Found at:http://www.mcspotlight.org/company/company_history.html.

[12] Kroc and Anderson, pp. 8-9.

[13] Langdon, Philip.  Orange Roofs, Golden Arches:  The Architecture of American Chain Restaurants.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1986, p. 85.

[14] Langdon, p. 90-91.

[15] Boas, Max, and Steve Chain.  Big Mac:  The Unauthorized Story of McDonald’s.  New York:  E. P. Dutton & Company, 1976, p. 27.

[16] Ibid.

[17] “A Brief History of McDonald’s.”  Found at:http://www.mcspotlight.org/company/company_history.html.

[18] Sanborn Fire Insurance maps for Pine Bluff, Arkansas:  March 1908, and April 1913, in the files of the Arkansas Historic Preservation Program.

[19] Information on McDonald’s signs found at http://www.kshs.org/cool13/neonsign.org.

[20] Information on McDonald’s signs found at from www.agilitynut.com/eateries/8.html and www.downeyca.org/visitor_mcdonalds.php.

[21] Bullinger, Michael.  Archives Manager, Golden Archives & Museums Corporate Communications, McDonald’s Corporation Office.  E-mail to the author.  19 July 2006.

[22] Information on McDonald’s signs found at http://www.kshs.org/cool13/neonsign.org.

[23] Thielen, Marcus.  “Happy Birthday, Neon!”  Signs of the Times magazine.  December 2001, pp. 20-26.

[24] Stern, Rudi.  The New Let There Be Neon.  New York:  Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1988, p. 28.

[25] “A Brief History of the Sign Industry.”  Signs of the Times magazine.  September 1976, pp. 62-66A, 95.

[26] Auer, Michael J.  Preservation Briefs 25:  The Preservation of Historic Signs.  Washington, DC:  National Park Service, 1991.

[27] Thielen, pp. 20-26.

[28] Stern, p. 28.

[29] Langdon, pp. 88-90.

[30] Langdon, p. 91.

[31] Liebs, p. 215.

[32] Langdon, p. 91.

[33] Langdon, p. 90.

[34] Langdon, pp. 91-92.

[35] Langdon, pp. 95-101.

[36] Boas and Chain, p. 56.

SIGNIFICANCE

The McDonald’s Store #433 Sign at 1300 South Main Street in Pine Bluff, which was built c.1962, is the only known surviving example of an early single-arch McDonald’s sign in Arkansas.  Since the opening of the first McDonald’s in Des Plaines, Illinois, in June 1955, the company has employed a wide variety of sign designs as their corporate logo and identity has been updated.  As a result, examples of early McDonald’s signs usually have not survived and due to its rarity, the McDonald’s Store #433 Sign is being nominated to the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion C with statewide significance as a good example of an early single-arch McDonald’s sign.  The sign is also significant as a rare surviving example of an early backlit plastic sign, a type of sign that became popular in the late 1950s and 1960s and revolutionized the sign industry after World War II.  Since the McDonald’s Store #433 Sign is the only known example of an early single-arch McDonald’s sign in Arkansas, it meets the “exceptional importance” requirements of Criteria Consideration G:  Properties That Have Achieved Significance Within the Past Fifty Years.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Auer, Michael J. Preservation Briefs 25:  The Preservation of Historic Signs.  Washington, DC:  National Park Service, 1991.

Boas, Max, and Steve Chain.  Big Mac:  The Unauthorized Story of McDonald’s.  New York:  E. P. Dutton & Company, 1976.

“A Brief History of the Sign Industry.”  Signs of the Times magazine.  September 1976, pp. 62-66A, 95.

Bullinger, Michael.  Archives Manager, Golden Archives & Museums Corporate Communications, McDonald’s Corporation Office.  E-mail to the author. 19 July 2006.

“A Brief History of McDonald’s.”  Found at:http://www.mcspotlight.org/company/company_history.html.

Information on McDonald’s signs found at http://www.kshs.org/cool13/neonsign.org.

Information on McDonald’s signs found at http://www.agilitynut.com/eateries/8.html.

Information on McDonald’s signs found at http://www.downeyca.org/visitor_mcdonalds.php.

Kroc, Ray, with Robert Anderson.  Grinding it Out:  The Making of McDonald’s.  Chicago:  Henry Regnery Company, 1977.

Langdon, Philip.  Orange Roofs, Golden Arches:  The Architecture of American Chain Restaurants.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1986.

Liebs, Chester H.  Main Street to Miracle Mile.  Boston:  Little, Brown and Company, 1985.

“McDonald’s History.”  Found at: http://www.mcdonalds.ca/pdfs/history_final.pdf.

Sanborn Fire Insurance maps for Pine Bluff, Arkansas:  March 1908, and April 1913, in the files of the Arkansas Historic Preservation Program.

Stern, Rudi.  The New Let There Be Neon.  New York:  Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1988.

Thielen, Marcus.  “Happy Birthday, Neon!”  Signs of the Times magazine.  December 2001, pp. 20-26.