Arkansas Historic Preservation Program
Fishback Neighborhood Historic District
Fishback Neighborhood Historic District

FISHBACK NEIGHBORHOOD HISTORIC DISTRICT, FORT SMITH, SEBASTIAN COUNTY

SUMMARY

The Fishback Neighborhood Historic District is located in the city of Fort Smith, Arkansas, which is a regional manufacturing and commercial center for this section of Arkansas and Oklahoma. The Fishback Neighborhood developed in the early 20th century as a middle- and upper-class residential area as the city expanded to the east. The neighborhood was platted and developed primarily between 1910 and 1922. Following the subdivision of lots the neighborhood experienced a wave of construction concentrated between 1910 to 1930 with dwellings designed in the Colonial Revival, Neo-classical, Tudor Revival and Craftsman styles. Following World War II, vacant lots on the eastern edge of the neighborhood were developed with Ranch style dwellings and almost all of the lots in the neighborhood were occupied by houses by 1960. The Fishback Neighborhood retains much of its architectural character as an early-to mid-20th century residential area and few modern homes are within its boundary.

The Fishback Neighborhood Historic District is eligible for the National Register under Criterion C for its architectural significance as a notable residential development of the early twentieth century. Its period of significance extends from 1904 which is the date of the oldest remaining dwelling in the neighborhood to 1960 in keeping with the 50-year rule. The district contains 93 primary buildings, of which 68 or 73.1% would be considered contributing to the character of the district. The district represents one of the largest intact collections of contiguous early- to mid-twentieth century dwellings in Fort Smith. These dwellings have not been significantly altered, and the district retains a strong sense of time and place.
 
The Fishback Neighborhood Historic District is significant under National Register Criterion C for its early twentieth century architecture. A historic preservation plan of Fort Smith completed in 2009 identified the Fishback Neighborhood as one of several areas in the city potentially eligible for the National Register. The district is residential in character and is located just south of Rogers Avenue (State Highway 22), a major artery of the city. The Craftsman design is the predominant architectural style of the neighborhood. Other architectural styles represented include Tudor Revival, Colonial Revival, American Foursquare, and Ranch. In addition to these dwellings, the district contains 37 outbuildings such as garage houses and garages, of which 26 are contributing to the character of the district. The appearance of the Fishback Neighborhood Historic District has not been significantly altered and it retains much of its historic character.

ELABORATION

This section of Arkansas was occupied by various Native American tribes prior to European settlement. The most dominant native group of west-central to northwest Arkansas during the 1700s were the Osage. By 1817, tensions along the frontier between the tribes and settlers resulted in the U.S. Army sending troops to keep the peace in the region. The troops constructed Fort Smith on the east side of the Arkansas River on a promontory called Belle Point, where the Arkansas meets the Poteau River. The military presence allowed an influx of settlers from the east, and a community began to grow up around the fort. Early settler John Rogers opened a trading post at Fort Smith, doing business with native people and trappers. Known as the Father of Fort Smith, Rogers became the settlement’s first postmaster in 1829. He laid out Garrison Avenue, the city’s primary commercial district and thoroughfare. In 1838, after the army abandoned the fort to move farther west into Indian Territory, it was Rogers who convinced the military to return and build a second fort.[1]

In addition to the construction of the fort, a military road was also built to connect Little Rock with Fort Smith and assist in expediting Indian removal. In 1824, the US Congress appropriated $15,000 for surveying and marking the road and by 1828 the road was completed to Fort Smith. Known locally as the Little Rock Road, this highway was destined to be one of the main thoroughfares in the city and later was renamed Rogers Avenue. [2]

Location played a major role in Fort Smith's growth and early development; a natural funnel to the Southwest, the Arkansas River Valley became the meeting point for many primary roads. As a result, in 1830, when President Andrew Jackson put into effect plans for the relocation of the eastern tribes, the resulting “Trail of Tears” passed right through the gateway community of Fort Smith. Military installations in the area assisted tribe members in rejoining their own communities or held them temporarily while land assignments were made. During this period of rapid westward expansion, the federal government and its military viewed Fort Smith as a strategic site, and the town around the fort grew. Incorporated in 1842, Fort Smith served as a pivotal supply post for gold seekers heading to California, local trappers and farmers, and the military. Business boomed for merchants, wagon companies, and saddle makers who sold supplies to westward pioneers and to army units headed for action in the war between the United States and Mexico. During this decade, the town built churches, a hotel and a school. As the United States frontier advanced, Fort Smith served as a vital communication center with mail, stage, and steamboats passing through the town. By 1850, the town boasted nearly 1,000 citizens.[3]

In 1860, the state of Arkansas had achieved a population of nearly half a million people—one quarter of them slaves of African descent. When Confederate states began to secede from the Union in 1861, Arkansas also severed ties with the United States. However, while more than 60,000 Arkansas residents joined rebel troops, at least 9,000 white citizens and more than 5,000 African Americans fought on the side of the Union in this conflict that divided communities and families.[4]

Fort Smith was no exception. Its strategic location on intersecting rivers and roads made it both a valuable staging area as a Union outpost and a target for Confederates. Beginning the war as a Confederate military installation, the fort was soon taken by Union troops. Union occupation was challenged in July of 1864. At Massard Prairie, eight miles southeast of Fort Smith, 600 Confederates caught 200 Union cavalrymen horseless as their herd grazed.Most were captured by the Confederates. Emboldened by success, the Confederates pressed on towards Fort Smith. They were repelled, however, by the Union force’s superior cannons.[5]

In 1865, Confederate leadership officially turned Arkansas, Texas and Indian Territory over to the Union, and the town of Fort Smith, with a population of about 2,000, began the work of rebuilding. Union troops stationed at the fort worked to restore order on the frontier. In 1870 the federal government relocated the Western Arkansas Federal Court District from Van Buren to Fort Smith, and a succession of well-known, tough federal judges presided on the Fort Smith bench.[6]

In 1870, the United States military abandoned its installation at Fort Smith. The vacated status of the fort reflected the poor economic prospects of the town. The recent completion of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad, bypassing Fort Smith, was drawing between $500,000 and $750,000 annually away from the town. Still, the town was large enough to support churches and schools. The Fort Smith Fire Department was established, and Adelaide Hall, which later became the posh LeFlore Hotel, was built on Garrison Avenue. Slowly but surely the population grew, reaching approximately 3,000 by 1880.[7]

This period of slow economic growth ended when Fort Smith became a distribution center for western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. In the late 1870s, the Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad was completed, giving Fort Smith access to the cities of the East. Commercial trade and wholesale activity expanded. Garrison Avenue teemed with activity. Enterprises along the street included dry goods stores, wholesale grocers, restaurants, saloons, furniture stores, jewelers and druggists. In 1883, thirty businesses joined the new telephone exchange and the first mule-drawn streetcars began transporting citizens down the streets. By 1887, Garrison Avenue was lined with brick buildings from the river to Seventh Street. The discovery of natural gas in the area in 1887 drew manufacturers to Fort Smith and during the 1880s, the city’s population nearly quadrupled, reaching more than 11,000 by 1890. Another milestone was the opening of the Missouri-Pacific Railroad Bridge across the Arkansas River in May of 1891, an event the city celebrated with a parade.[8]

The town’s affluence was evident in the brick Italianate and Romanesque commercial buildings going up on Garrison Avenue and in the ornate Victorian homes constructed in the newly developed area of Belle Grove. There, just northeast of the commercial district, the city’s businessmen built luxurious homes for their families. Construction began on Belle Grove School in 1884, with the federal government’s gift to the city of the land formerly occupied by the fort.[9] The citizens of Fort Smith built a variety of house types in Belle Grove and other downtown neighborhoods as the city expanded. Popular styles of the mid-to-late nineteenth century included Folk Victorian, Italianate, Queen Anne and Second Empire designs.

A bustling regional distribution center, Fort Smith promoted itself as safe and profitable for business. The town’s economy remained strong through the Panic of 1893. Of all points in the country served by the Wells-Fargo Express Company, only two made an increase in business in 1893 over 1892, and only one a material increase—that being Fort Smith.As the twentieth century began, Fort Smith continued to prosper; and the city grew rapidly. Between 1900 and 1910, its population nearly doubled. In 1908, Electric Park was built. This popular recreational destination featured a 2000-seat auditorium, tree-lined promenades, roller coaster rides and other diversions. During the first decade of the twentieth century, the Peabody School was built, and the city’s Fortnightly club acquired a Carnegie grant to build a library.[10]

The population increase in Fort Smith resulted in the expansion of the city to the south, east and northeast. What was formerly farmland on the edges of the city was subdivided by property owners and developers to create building lots. Much of this development took place along the Little Rock Road, now Rogers Avenue (State Highway 22). This major artery connected with Garrison Avenue and extended southeast from the city. Along this road trolley lines were built and numerous residential areas were developed after 1900.

Some of these residential areas were developed by William Meade Fishback, the seventeenth Governor of Arkansas. Fishback was born in Virginia in 1831 and worked as an attorney in Illinois before moving to Fort Smith in 1858. During the 1860s he operated one of the most prominent law firms in the city and married Adelaide Miller in 1867. He built a two-story frame house with Greek Revival detailing east of the downtown area just south of the Little Rock Road. In 1874, Fishback was elected as a delegate to the state’s constitutional convention and two years later to the 21st General Assembly.[11] He ran unsuccessfully for governor in 1880 but was reelected to the legislature in 1884. Fishback ran again for governor in 1892 and was elected by an overwhelming majority. He retired from politics after his term as governor ended in 1895. Fishback retired back to Fort Smith and resided at his estate until his death in 1903. Following his death, his heirs gradually platted and sold sections of his property.

Fishback’s death coincided with the rapid growth and expansion of Fort Smith’s residential areas. The city experienced an economic boom in these years with the population doubling from 11,500 residents in 1900 to almost 24,000 in 1910. What were originally large estates or farmland were purchased and subdivided into residential building lots. The oldest subdivision represented in the Fishback neighborhood is Breen’s Addition which was subdivided and platted in 1887 and includes properties along the 1000 block of S. Greenwood Avenue. [12] Although platted in 1887, none of the existing buildings were constructed before ca. 1905. Originally known as Greenwood Road, this became an important north/south street in this section of the city.The properties in the 900 block of S. Greenwood Avenue are part of the Humphrey’s Place subdivision which was platted in 1909. [13] This property was part of the estate of Mrs. Belle Humphrey who resided in a house facing Rogers Avenue for many years.

The hill on which the Fishback home was located was gradually subdivided in the early 1900s. The top of hill was subdivided and platted in 1910 and a street was laid out named Adelaide in honor of Fishback’s wife, Adelaide Miller Fishback. Known as Meade’s Addition, this subdivision included 22 parcels, most of which were 50’ in width. [14] The subdivision originally included the home of Fishback which stood at 1120 Adelaide Avenue into the 1970s. The house site is now the location of the dwelling at 2801 Reeder Street. The eastern slope of the hill was also subdivided and platted in 1910 and called the Meade Place Addition. [15] These lots were also 50’ in width but were on slopes and the lots were less attractive to buyers than the top of the hill. Few homes were built on these parcels until after 1945.

The Fishback Neighborhood emerged as an upper- and middle-class neighborhood in the early twentieth century. One of many subdivisions established in what was a newly annexed area of Fort Smith, the Fishback Neighborhood reflects the growth and development of the city as it entered a new progressive era. Suburban development, modern transportation via streetcar and automobiles, and an increasing middle class defined the nature of this growth as Fort Smith evolved into an important city on the Arkansas/Oklahoma border. After Fishback’s death in 1903, several large lots were subdivided from his estate along Rogers Avenue including several acres purchased by Horace F. Rogers. Rogers came to Fort Smith in 1873 and became a prominent member of the community through his real estate holdings and operation of a rock crushing plant.[16] In 1904 he built the Neo-classical style house at 2900 Rogers Avenue which featured a two-story portico with fluted Doric columns. Rogers and his family resided at the house for a number of years until it was purchased by the Ashley Johnson family. Because of its architectural and historical significance, this property was listed on the National Register in 1979.

Another notable Neo-classical style home was built ca. 1912 at 904 Adelaide Avenue by Joseph Ward. Ward and his brother operated several businesses in Fort Smith including an ice storage company and ice cream company. [17] Built facing the Horace F. Rogers House, this two-story brick dwelling featured a portico with four Corinthian columns on the main façade. This house retains its original design and is an important example of this style in the city.

In addition to the subdivision of the Fishback estate, property in the neighborhood was also developed by George C. Reed. The Reeder Place Subdivision of 1911 was developed by Reed and this subdivision included 26 lots facing Reeder Street and Dobson Avenue.[18]Reed also purchased and subdivided property originally part of the Fishback estate and created the subdivision known as Buckingham Terrace. [19]Within the subdivision were 24 lots facing the new streets named Herbert and Lela. An adjacent subdivision, known as the Eloise Addition containing eleven lots on Herbert and Reeder Streets, was platted in 1922. [20]

Throughout the 1910s and 1920s houses were built in the Fishback Neighborhood at a rapid rate. The neighborhood appealed to the city’s growing middle- and upper-class residents and developed quickly.The Craftsman design was one of the most popular styles of homebuilders in Fort Smith from 1910 to 1930 and these dwellings are well represented in the Fishback Neighborhood. This contemporary design originated in California in the early 1900s and quickly became the most dominant style for smaller dwellings built throughout the country into the 1920s.[21] The majority of the Craftsmans built in the neighborhood are one- to one- and one-half-story in height, with brick veneer or frame exteriors and large porches on the primary façade. Representative examples include the dwellings at 1106 S. Greenwood Avenue and 2710 Reeder Street.

In addition to various Craftsman designs, the Fishback Neighborhood also features examples of American Foursquare, Neo-classical, Colonial Revival, and Tudor Revival styles from the period. These revival styles were also quite popular for home builders in Fort Smith. At 1102 S. Greenwood Avenue is an example of the Neo-classical style and this dwelling features a two-story portico with Doric motif columns on the main façade. Fine examples of the Colonial Revival style were built at 1112 Adelaide Avenue and 2814 Reeder Street. A simplified version of the Colonial Revival style, known as the American Foursquare, was built at 1000 Adelaide Avenue.

The neighborhood is also home to numerous examples of the Tudor Revival style. Tudor Revival residences are based on Medieval English designs and have steeply pitched roofs, prominent wall chimneys and casement windows. Representative examples of this style include the two-story brick and stucco dwelling at 2710 Herbert Street and the brick dwelling with a prominent corner tower bay at 1008 S. Greenwood Avenue. A modest example of this style is the brick and stucco residence 2726 Reeder Street which features an arched entrance.

Residents of the Fishback Neighborhood represented a mixture of middle-class and upper-class occupations. Prominent residents of the neighborhood in the 1920s included Maurice Bedwell who was a co-owner of the Bedwell Coal Company and built the Tudor Revival style dwelling at 1008 S. Greenwood Avenue. [22] The Tudor Revival style dwelling at 1100 Adelaide Avenue was built as the home of Buck Williams who owned and operated the Fort Smith Wagon Company. This company was highly successful in the early 20th century and was eventually sold to the John Deere Plow Company. [23] At 2716 Herbert Street was the home of attorney Louis F. Fishback who built his house on the property of his father, William Meade Fishback, ca. 1905. The dwelling at 935 Adelaide Avenue was the home of Dr. Everett and Juliette Moulton. Moulton was the son of prominent Fort Smith physician Herbert Moulton.[24]

During the 1920s the neighborhood continued to house many of Fort Smith’s businessmen and their families. 910 S. Greenwood Avenue was the home of Roy and Eva Drum and he managed the Ward Ice Company. The property at 2710 Lela Avenue was the home of Fitzgerald and Elizabeth Creekmore and he was president of a cotton company. One of the city’s promoters of automobiles was Marshall Yantis who constructed the house at 2715 Reeder Street. Yantis opened his automobile business in Fort Smith in 1915 which became known as “The Automotive Inc.” This business eventually became a major auto part supplier in the region and the third largest publicly-owned automotive distributor in the country.[25]

The Fishback Neighborhood also was home to many middle-class residents who resided in the more modest homes along Reeder Street and Dodson Avenue. At 2714 Reeder Street was the home of Rev. Samuel and Mary Buckner and he served as the pastor of the First Christian Church. The house at 1114 S. Greenwood Avenue was occupied by traveling salesman F. Stickney Meek and his wife Lee. The dwelling at 2706 Herbert Street was the home to railroad conductor Duncan McKay and his wife Bessie. Other occupations represented in the neighborhood during these years include salesman, cashier, and truck driver.

By the late 1920s, the majority of the lots on the high ground in the neighborhood had been developed with single-family houses. However, the slopes of the hill east of Adelaide Avenue remained wooded and vacant during these years. The 1929 stock market crash halted Fort Smith’s growth and development and the decade of the 1930s saw little new construction in the city and the Fishback Neighborhood. The city’s economy continued to struggle until 1941 when the federal government acquired 15,000 acres of land along the southern edge of Fort Smith for an army base. Camp Chafee, later Fort Chaffee, was activated in 1942, soon after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The Sixth, Fourteenth, and Sixteenth Armored Divisions trained there, and the base also served as a prisoner of war camp, detaining 3,000 Germans.[26] During World War II, Fort Smith’s population grew from 36,000 to 48,000 residents. While the economy of Fort Smith was closely tied to the army base, city officials foresaw the need to become less reliant on Fort Chaffee and began recruiting industry to the area. With the end of World War II, Fort Smith entered another period of sustained growth fueled by the establishment of new industries.

With the end of the war, residential construction increased rapidly in the city. During the late 1940s and 1950s, dozens of new homes were built in the eastern section of the neighborhood in the popular Ranch and Minimal Traditional styles of the period. The final subdivision in the neighborhood was Beverly Place which was created in 1954 by Robert Smith. This subdivision was on the slope of the hill east of South 30th Street and contained eight lots of 113’ to 114’ in width. [27] These large lots reflected the changing architectural style and forms after World War II in order to accommodate the large, rambling Ranch style dwelling popular during the period. These houses were built with low-pitched gable and hipped roofs, horizontal forms and often had attached or integral garages or carports. Most houses along Beverly Drive and the 3000 blocks of Reeder Street and Dodson Avenue were constructed during the 1950s and reflect the rapid expansion of the neighborhood and Fort Smith in the decades after World War II. By 1960, almost all of the lots in the Fishback Neighborhood had been developed with dwellings.

The Fishback Neighborhood is one of several areas in Fort Smith identified as potentially eligible for the National Register in 2009 as part of an overall citywide historic preservation planning project. Two neighborhoods are currently listed on the National Register in the city; Belle Grove (NR listed July 16, 1973) and May-Lecta-Sweet (NR listed July 2, 2008). Belle Grove is located northeast of downtown and contains the city’s oldest domestic properties. The Italianate and Queen Anne architecture in the district reflects the residential growth and development of the city in the late 19th century. The May-Lecta-Sweet Historic District is located directly north of the Fishback Neighborhood and possesses an important collection of properties built from ca. 1880 to the early 1900s. The Fishback Neighborhood is significant as city’s most intact and notable collection of residential architecture built in the 1910s and 1920s.

The Fishback Neighborhood continues to be a cohesive neighborhood connected through its architectural design. The neighborhood has experienced some losses in recent decades with a few dwellings being razed; however, the majority of properties retain a high degree of their architectural integrity, and new construction in the district has been minimal. The majority of the properties remain owner-occupied, and there is a renewed interest in preserving the historic character of the neighborhood among local residents.



[1] Benjamin Boulden, “Fort Smith (Sebastian County),” at http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/

[2] Julia Etter Yadon, Sue Ross Cross and Randall Ross Viguet, “Reflections of Fort Smith,” Fort Smith, Arkansas: Fort Smith Historical Press, 1976, 67.

[3] Benjamin Boulden, “Fort Smith (Sebastian County),” at http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/

[4] John William Graves, “African Americans,” at http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/

[5] Claude Patterson, “Massard Prairie,” at http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/

[6] David Bowden, “United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas,” at http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/

[7] J. Fred Patton, History of Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1817-1992 (North Little Rock: Prestige Publishing, 1992), 5, 257.

[8] Boulden; Patton, 253, 261.

[9] Boulden; Patton, 9, 11, 259-260.

[10] Patton, 19, 281.

[12] “Plat of Breen’s Addition to Fort Smith,” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1887.

[13] “Plat of Humphrey’s Place,” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1909.

[14] “Plat of Meade’s Addition,” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1910.

[15] “Plat of Meade Place,” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1910.

[16] Julia Etter Yadon, Sue Ross Cross and Randall Ross Viguet, “Reflections of Fort Smith,” Fort Smith, Arkansas: Fort Smith Historical Press, 1976, 125.

[17] Julia Etter Yadon, Sue Ross Cross and Randall Ross Viguet, “Reflections of Fort Smith,” Fort Smith, Arkansas: Fort Smith Historical Press, 1976, 124.

[18] “Plat of Reeder Place in Fort Smith, Arkansas,” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1911.

[19] “Plat of Buckingham Terrace,” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1911.

[20] “Plat of Eloise Addition to the City of Fort Smith,” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1922.

[21] Virginia and Lee McAlester, A Field Guide to American Houses, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984), 454.

[22] Julia Etter Yadon, Sue Ross Cross and Randall Ross Viguet, “Reflections of Fort Smith,” Fort Smith, Arkansas: Fort Smith Historical Press, 1976, 123.

[23] Julia Etter Yadon, Sue Ross Cross and Randall Ross Viguet, “Reflections of Fort Smith,” Fort Smith, Arkansas: Fort Smith Historical Press, 1976, 75.

[24] Faulk, Odie B., and Billy Mac Jones. “Fort Smith, An Illustrated History.” Fort Smith, Arkansas: Private Printing, 1973. 204.

[25] Ibid, 200.

[26] Ibid., 29; Miranda Radcliff, “Fort Chaffee,” at http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/

[27] “Plat of Beverly Place,” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1954.

SIGNIFICANCE

The Fishback Neighborhood Historic District is located in the city of Fort Smith, Arkansas, which is a regional manufacturing and commercial center for this section of Arkansas and Oklahoma. The Fishback Neighborhood developed in the early 20th century as a middle- and upper-class residential area as the city expanded to the east. The neighborhood was platted and developed primarily between 1910 and 1922. Following the subdivision of lots the neighborhood experienced a wave of construction concentrated between 1910 to 1930 with dwellings designed in the Colonial Revival, Neo-classical, Tudor Revival and Craftsman styles. Following World War II, vacant lots on the eastern edge of the neighborhood were developed with Ranch style dwellings and almost all of the lots in the neighborhood were occupied by houses by 1960. The Fishback Neighborhood retains much of its architectural character as an early-to mid-20th century residential area and few modern homes are within its boundary.

The Fishback Neighborhood Historic District is eligible for the National Register under Criterion C for its architectural significance as a notable residential development of the early twentieth century. Its period of significance extends from 1904 which is the date of the oldest remaining dwelling in the neighborhood to 1960 in keeping with the 50-year rule. The district contains 93 primary buildings, of which 68 or 73.1% would be considered contributing to the character of the district. The district represents one of the largest intact collections of contiguous early- to mid-twentieth century dwellings in Fort Smith. These dwellings have not been significantly altered, and the district retains a strong sense of time and place.
 
The Fishback Neighborhood Historic District is significant under National Register Criterion C for its early twentieth century architecture. A historic preservation plan of Fort Smith completed in 2009 identified the Fishback Neighborhood as one of several areas in the city potentially eligible for the National Register. The district is residential in character and is located just south of Rogers Avenue (State Highway 22), a major artery of the city. The Craftsman design is the predominant architectural style of the neighborhood. Other architectural styles represented include Tudor Revival, Colonial Revival, American Foursquare, and Ranch. In addition to these dwellings, the district contains 37 outbuildings such as garage houses and garages, of which 26 are contributing to the character of the district. The appearance of the Fishback Neighborhood Historic District has not been significantly altered and it retains much of its historic character.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

“Atlas of Sebastian County, Arkansas.” Chicago: E.L. Hayes and Company, 1887.

Boulden, Benjamin. “Fort Smith (Sebastian County).” At http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/

Bowden, David. “United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas,” at http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/

“The Era of Trolleys in Fort Smith, Arkansas.” At http://www.fstm.org/fslt.html

Faulk, Odie B., and Billy Mac Jones. “Fort Smith, An Illustrated History.” Fort Smith, Arkansas: Private Printing, 1973. 204.

Graves, John William. “African Americans.” At http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/

Hendricks, Nancy. “Belle Star (1848-1889) a.k.a. Myra Maybelle Shirley.” At http://www.fstm.org/fslt.html

McAlester, Virginia and Lee. A Field Guide to American Houses. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984.

Patterson, Claude. “Massard Prairie.” At http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/

Patton, J. Fred. History of Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1817-1992. North Little Rock: Prestige Publishing, 1992.

“Plat of Beverly Place.” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1954.

“Plat of Breen’s Addition to Fort Smith.” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1887.

“Plat of Buckingham Terrace.” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1911.

“Plat of Eloise Addition to the City of Fort Smith.” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1922.

“Plat of Humphrey’s Place.” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1909.

“Plat of Meade’s Addition.” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1910.

“Plat of Meade Place.” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1910.

“Plat of Reeder Place in Fort Smith, Arkansas.” Plat on file at the Sebastian County Courthouse, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1911.

Radcliff, Miranda. “Fort Chaffee.” At http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/

Yadon, Julia Etter, Sue Ross Cross and Randall Ross Viguet. “Reflections of Fort Smith.” Fort Smith, Arkansas: Fort Smith  Historical Press, 1976.